Research was done comparing NSM to a few languages such as OWL,PDDL, and MOF. They found a subset of primitives are in formal languages already. The ones missing are about 40/65. So over 2/3 of these words are not in formal languages.
“Abstract. This paper surveys languages used to enrich contextual information with semantic descriptions. Such descriptions can be e.g. applied to enable reasoning when collecting vast amounts of row data in domains like smart environments. In particular, we focus on the elements of the languages that make up their semantic. To do so, we compare the expressiveness of the well-known languages OWL, PDDL and MOF with a theory from linguistic called the Natural Semantic Metalanguage.”
Analysis of words programming to primes in MOF:
Analysis of primes in the PDDL language: